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|Technical problem or audience response.
|Also known as picture lock; The point at which you stop fiddling; From now on any sound work, music, commentary, visual fx etc. have to match this picture. It's the hymn sheet that everyone has to sing to.
|Jumping back in time during a narrative. It used to be obligatory to use a harp glissando and a ripple dissolve to alert the audience as to what was happening. These days a sound overlap suffices.
|Just as sync
dialogue is often replaced (see ADR) so spot fx are post-synced
by a footsteps artist in a dubbing theatre equipped with various
surfaces for walking on, plus a pile of junk for producing bangs,
rustles, squeaks etc.
This procedure is more usual on dramas, although I did know a documentary editor who always booked a footsteps session before he tracklayed.
The US term 'Foley' is apparently named after a person; presumably a master or mistress of their craft, like our own late lamented Beryl the Boot.
|See also aspect ratios . Generally, the more film or tape you use, the higher the resolution. On film the common widths are 35mm and 16mm, but 70mm and 8mm are also available and you might find some old 9.5mm that has sprocket holes down the middle. Analogue videotape managed to squeeze more quality into less space as the technology improved; it went from 2" to 1" to Betacam SP which is 3/4". Digital tape varies from the bootlace dv formats to digibeta (popular for shooting) to the mastering D1 (3/4" component), D2(3/4" composite), D3(1/2" composite), D5 (1/2" component) formats. There is no D4 because the Japanese are superstitious about the number 4.
|A frame is
one of the still pictures that film and video consists of. On video
there are two fields to each frame.
FPS = frames per second; the camera. Standard speeds are 24 fps for film projection and, if you are going to telecine; 25 fps for PAL and 24 fps or 30 fps for NTSC .(The reason being that the field rates are based on the mains rates of 50 hertz in Europe and 60 hertz in the US. Well actually it's about 59.4 hertz which is why they have 'drop frames' occasionally to retain sync.
As long as you project or TK at the same speed as you film, the speed of action will be correct. The slower the speed you shoot at, the less film you use, but the jerkier the action gets (sometimes done deliberately to give that 'archive' look).
|Sound effects, special effects, visual effects etc.