Home l People l Credits  l Rates l Facilities l Location l Glossary l What's New l Wit & Wisdom l Tangram West l History l Game  


Simon Rose's 
Editing Glossary.

A is for:

  B   C   D   E          I    K   L     N   O     Q  R     T   U   V       Y   Z

A/B-roll 1 Film: A method of cutting neg on two rolls with overlaps so that dissolves and fades can be produced without using opticals (i.e. without going down a generation and losing quality)
2 Videotape in linear suite: As above really.
Action Cut A cut between two shots that uses continuity of motion to fool the eye and create a smooth transition. A good action cut is the most invisible transition you can make.
Tip: If you are cutting between two angles of a moving object (e.g. a door opening) its more important to match the speed and direction of the movement than to be fussy about  exact continuity of position.
ADR Automatic Dialogue Replacement: 
Speech recorded on location often has unwanted background sound and may be off-mic (the sound recordist has not been able to get the microphone close enough to the speaker because of problems with boom shadows etc). 

On documentaries you usually have to live with this. But on features the dialogue is replaced after editing the picture.
The traditional method was to make a loop of the picture and sync sound of each dialogue scene, together with a loop of magnetic film of the same length. Each actor would then stand in a dubbing theatre watching the picture and listening to his original dialogue on headphones and repeat the words until everyone was happy that they had good synchronisation of picture and sound and that the performance was as good and preferably better than the original. 

These days the procedure is much the same except that, instead of a dubbing editor having to produce hundreds of loops, machines can instantly replay any selected section of a film. The automatic bit comes in when the machine adjusts the position of each dialogue line to give the best sync match. This used to be done manually by the dubbing editor.
Tip: If you are trying to synchronise a line of dialogue - its the end that's most important! The audience doesn't have time to notice the first syllable but by the end they will spot just one frame inaccuracy.
Picture lagging after sound produces "lazy lips". 
Analogue recording Traditional way of recording  pictures or sound onto tape, disc etc where the recorded signal is analogous (bears a similarity) to the original. As opposed to Digital recording, where everything is turned into the numbers that computers can handle.
Answer Print Print made from the final cut negative of a film, incorporating the first attempts by the lab at colour grading. The editor returns it with comments (usually rude), or views it with the grader before the final release (movie) or transmission (TV) print is made.
Archive material Film or video sourced from a library etc. and not specially shot. (See film researcher- if budget allows).
Aspect Ratio The ratio of width to height of a picture. Old fashioned movies and films have a ratio of 4:3 (12:9).  Wide screen TVs have 16:9. Compromise letterboxes are 15:9 or 14:9.  Wide screen film formats include 1.85:1 (just over 16:9) and 2.35:1  (about 21:9).
Out of interest (I hope) the classical 'Golden Mean', supposedly the ideal ratio of a picture, is approximately 1.618034:1 or 14.56 :9
Assistant Editor See Editor.
Assemble Edit In old fashioned linear tape editing: adding one shot to the last, starting at the start and ending at the end. The alternative is insert editing, or go non-linear! 
Assembly Early loose rough cut.
Atmos Atmosphere track/ buzz track/ room atmos. Sound recording made at time of filming (see wild track) to provide matching background sound to aid in editing dialogue etc. Now that dubbing theatres have digital samplers that can take a few frames of a background sound and loop it, atmos tracks are not quite so essential.
Audio Sweetening Low budget term for sound mixing.
Auto Conform Getting a computer to replicate all the edits in an on-line suite that have previously been done in an off-line suite.
i.e. You spend weeks with an editor in a relatively cheap room (like those at Tangram) and then take an EDL to a bigger, swishier, more expensive room where the final cut you have produced at low resolution quality is replicated at broadcast quality in a few hours.
(I used to tell film people that auto conforming is like neg cutting. Now I tell video people that neg cutting is like auto conforming)
Avid Brand name of a range of non-linear editing software and systems. By clever marketing and by providing a range of products that are constantly updated they have become the market leaders in the professional field.
AVR See compression.